Tomatoes, or, as many gardeners call them, tomatoes, the most beloved, the most delicious and the most, the most popular. They are in great demand at any time of the year. This is due to the fact that they are really tasty, useful for the human body and, in addition, they are rich in vitamins C1, B1, B2, B3, PP, and also contain folic acid, carotene and provitamin D, etc.
Also, tomatoes have a good effect in the treatment of thrombophlebitis and varicose veins. Tomato juice and fresh red fruits are used in the treatment of gastritis with low acidity. Tomatoes are also used as a laxative.
Currently, tomato is one of the main vegetable crops, it is cultivated almost all over the world and get good harvests not only in protected ground, but also in the open!
© H. Zell
Hybrids and varieties of tomatoes
For open ground
Caspar F1. A gorgeous, exceptionally high-performance hybrid. Fruits are pepper-shaped, dense, fleshy. Suitable for all types of canning. Thick peel, high saturation of pulp make it the leader of canning. Grown in open ground and under the film.
Junior F1. Ultra-ripe hybrid of tomato, from seedlings to the beginning of fruit ripening - 80 - 85 days. A plant 50 to 60 cm high, compact, slightly leafy. The inflorescence is simple - 7 to 8 flowers. On the main stem there are 3 inflorescences. Fruits ripen in the open ground until August 15. Fruits of bright red color, smooth or slightly ribbed, weighing from 70 to 100 g. Planting pattern 50 × 30 cm (6 plants / m2). Productivity 2 kg per plant.
Dina. Early ripening (110-120 days). Plant height 70 - 80 cm, does not require pinching. Fruits are rounded, intense yellow in color, fleshy, very tasty, weighing 150 - 300 g. Productivity 7 kg / m2.
Semko-98 F1. Early ripening hybrid. Fruiting occurs on the 87 - 93rd day after the emergence of seedlings. The first inflorescence is laid over the 5-7th leaf, the next - after 1-2 leaves. The fruit is round-flat, smooth, uniform in color, weighing 65 - 80 g.
The hybrid is resistant to late blight.
Productivity 0.8 - 1.6 kg per plant.
Semko-100 F1. Fruiting begins on the 100-105th day after the emergence of seedlings. A plant 70 cm high. A simple brush with 10-15 fruits. The first inflorescence is laid over the 6-8th leaf, the subsequent ones - through the leaf. The fruits are red, smooth, dense, weighing 50 - 60 g. Taste excellent. Recommended for fresh consumption and for canning.
It is steady against late blight. Productivity 1.8 - 2.4 kg per plant.
Iogenes. Early ripening (95 - 100 days) with amicable ripening of fruits. The plant is 50-60 cm high. The fruits are round, red, of excellent taste, weighing up to 100 g. Yield 3 - 5 kg from one bush.
Siberian precocious. Mid early. The plant is stunted. The inflorescence is laid over the 6-8th leaf, the next - after 1-2 leaves. Fruits are medium sized and large (60-120 g). Productivity 0.6 - 1.2 kg per plant.
White bulk-241. Early. The plant is medium-sized. The first inflorescence is laid over the 6th-7th leaf, the next - after 1 - 2 leaves. The fruits are round, medium in size and large (80-120 g). The yield of 0.8-2.2 kg per plant.
Newbie. Mid early. The inflorescence is simple, compact, with 4 to 5 fruits. The average mass of the fruit is 100-150 g. The fruits are round, smooth. The color of ripe fruit is intense red. The fruits are distinguished by high palatability. Productivity of 1,5 - 2 kg from one plant.
Quiz. The plant is medium, medium early. The first inflorescence is laid over the 6th leaf. Fruits are roundish, large, red in color, weighing 150-200 g. Productivity 5-9 kg / m2.
Titanium. Mid-late. The plant is 38–50 cm high. The fruits are round, red, weighing 77–141 g. It is valued for its high yield (8 kg / m2), smoothness of the fruit, and excellent fresh taste and salinity.
Danna. Early ripe (105 - 110 days), up to 70 cm high. Apple-shaped fruits, bright red, weighing 100-150 g. Excellent taste, fruitful, suitable for canning.
Yellow. The inflorescence is laid over the 8th-9th leaf, the mass of the fruit is 90 - 120 g. The fruits are round, smooth, golden yellow. Harvest from one plant 1 - 1.8 kg.
Tamina. Early ripe. Ripening of fruits begins in 80 - 85 days after emergence of seedlings. Fruits are rounded, even, dense, stained evenly in brick-red color, 6-8 pieces per brush, weight 70-80 g, resistant to cracking. The average yield of 5-6 kg per plant.
Gina. Early, high-yielding variety. The largest of all varieties intended for planting in open ground. The fruits are very tasty, fleshy, aromatic, weighing up to 300 g.
P-83 (Early-83). The plant is 35-60 cm high. The variety is early ripe, productive. It is recommended for cultivation in open ground by seedling and seedlingless way. Fruits are rounded flat, smooth, large, red, of high taste, weighing 80 - 95 g. Productivity up to 7.5 kg / m2. The variety is distinguished by the friendly ripening of fruits. In the brush. It is used fresh and for processing.
New Transnistria. An excellent mid-season grade for whole-canning. The fruits ripen on the 110th - 130th day. Plant height 50 - 80 cm. The fruits are cylindrical, smooth, red, with good taste, weighing 40 - 50 g. Productivity 10 kg / m.
Marissa F1. Powerful indeterminate early hybrid with high productivity. The shape of the fruit is round. Fruits weighing 160 g with a good consistency of pulp. Fruit setting is very good. The fruits have a uniform green color; they can be removed both green and mature. The fruits have excellent transportability and can be stored for 3 weeks without loss of quality. MARISSA combines high productivity with good setting and excellent fruit quality.
Marfa F1.-A powerful indeterminate hybrid of early ripening with a developed root system. Fruit formation is very good even at low temperatures. MARPA can grow at a temperature 5 degrees C lower than other hybrids. The average weight of the fruit is 140 - 150 g. The fruits combine excellent taste with high density and keeping quality. Resistance to most pathogens and excellent growth strength make MARFU a reliable hybrid in various growing conditions.
For protected ground
Celebrity F1. Early hybrid. Fruiting begins on the 85th – 90th day after emergence. The first inflorescence is laid over the 6th-7th leaf, the next - after 1-2 leaves. In the inflorescence, 6 to 8 fruits are formed. Fruits are rounded, smooth, bright red in color, weighing 200 - 250 g. Productivity 8-10 kg / m2. Resistance to late blight.
Typhoon F1. Early ripe hybrid. Fruiting begins on the 90th - 95th day after the emergence of seedlings. Fruits are rounded, uniform in color, weighing 70 - 90 g. Yield 9 kg / m2.
Friend F1. An ordinary plant, height 60 - 70 cm. The inflorescence is simple, laid above the 6-7th leaf, the subsequent ones through 1-2 leaves. Fruits are roundish, of medium size (80-90 g), uniform bright red color. Valued for getting an early and friendly harvest. Productivity of 8 - 9 kg / m2.
Semko-Sinbad F1. One of the most promising early ripening hybrids. Fruiting begins on the 90-93th day after emergence of seedlings. In the inflorescence of 6 to 8 fruits. Fruits are rounded, uniform bright red color, weighing 90 g. Yield 9-10 kg / m2.
Blagovest F1. The hybrid is characterized by early and friendly ripening. The inflorescence is simple, there are 6 to 8 fruits in it. The first inflorescence is laid over the 7th – 8th leaf, the next ones in 1–2 leaves. The fruits are rounded. The average mass of the fruit is 100 - 110 g. Productivity is 18 - 20 kg / m2.
Kostroma F1. Hybrid mid-early ripening. Fruiting begins on the 105th-110th day after the emergence of seedlings. The first inflorescence is laid over the 8th-9th leaf, the next - after 2 - 3 leaves. In the inflorescence, 8 to 9 fruits are formed. Fruits are rounded flat, weighing 125 g. Yield 17-19 kg / m2.
Ilyich F1. Early ripe, high-yielding hybrid. Excellent palatability of the fruit. Form in one stalk. Fruits weighing 140-150 g, resistant to disease.
F1 search. Early ripe high-yielding hybrid. Plant height 100 cm. Fruits have high taste. Resistant to disease and temperature changes.
Samara F1. One of the first domestic carpal tomatoes. The hybrid is early. The inflorescence is simple, with self-limiting growth, with 5-7 fruits. The first inflorescence is laid over the 7th-8th leaf, the next - after 2 - 3 leaves. Fruits are round in shape, smooth, dense, aligned, weighing 80 g, have excellent taste, are ripe at the same time, which allows brushing.
Tornado F1. Hybrid for universal use. The plant is medium-sized, medium-sized, of a determinant type. In height reaches 1.5 - 1.8 m. Fruits are rounded, bright red, weighing 70-90 g.
Berljoka F1. It is characterized by an early and friendly return of the crop. Plant of determinant type. The shoot formation ability is reduced. Fruits are rounded, smooth, uniform in color, weighing about 90 g. The average yield of 4.5 - 5 kg per plant.
Gondola F1. Early high-yielding hybrid. Fruits of the highest quality in taste, keeping quality and density. Fruits on average weighing 160 g, some reach 600 - 700 g. They are stored for a long time.
Semko-99 F1. From full germination to the beginning of fruiting 100-105 days. The plant is determinant. The first inflorescence is laid over the 7th-8th leaf, the next - after 1-2 leaves. The fruit is flat-round, with a slight indentation at the base, large, red, weighing 160-170 g, smooth, sometimes slightly ribbed. Fruits are resistant to cracking and tolerate transportation well. Productivity 15 kg / m2.
Pound. Mid-season (115-120 days). A plant 1.8 - 2.0 m high. Form in one stem with obligatory pinching. Fruits are rounded flat, red, weighing up to 400 g, juicy, fleshy. Productivity 19 - 21 kg / m2. Resistant to disease.
Stresa F1. Fruiting begins on the 110th-115th day after emergence. The plant is indeterminate. The first inflorescence is laid after the 8-9th leaf. The average number of fruits in the inflorescence is 6. The shape of the fruit is round-flat, weight 180 - 220 g or more. The hybrid has complex resistance to pathogens of the main diseases of tomato. Productivity is more than 25 kg / m2.
Kastalia F1. The most promising of large-fruited hybrids. The first inflorescence is laid after the 8th-9th leaf, the subsequent ones after 3 leaves. The average number of flowers in the inflorescence is 6 - 7. The fruit is round-flat, weighing 180 - 230 g. Productivity 20-22 kg / m.
Tomatoes propagate seed (1 g contains from 230 - 300 pcs.). Seed germination lasts for 6 to 10 years. Root system - core, and the root grows in depth, but lateral roots grow on the sides. When cultivating tomato seedlings, the root system is located in the upper soil layer 40 to 60 cm deep, and in the protected soil 30 to 50 cm deep. Additional subordinate roots form anywhere in the stem if it is sprinkled with moist soil. For example, in overgrown seedlings during planting, you can deepen part of the stem, which will accelerate the growth and development of the plant.
Inflorescences, or flower brush, - at high night temperatures (above 25 ° C) fewer flowers are formed. In the winter and early spring periods, at low illumination, inflorescences form weakly or do not form at all. In summer if high humidity air and excess nitrogen in the soil (manure), the inflorescence grows and at the end of the flower brush you can often see how the leaf grows. If the night temperature is within 15-18 ° C, this contributes to the formation of a large number of flowers.
The flower of the tomato is bisexual, which provides self-pollination.
Fetus - fleshy berry. Fruits are small (grape), medium (70 - 120 g) and large (200 - 800 g).
Coloring fruits - mostly red, it is also pink, yellow, rarely black.
Tomato - photophilous plant, requires good sunlight. If the lighting is poor, the plants quickly stretch, flowering and fruiting are delayed, the flowers fall, the taste of the fruit worsens (watery). Therefore, greenhouses, hotbeds, beds are selected only in the lighted sunny area, protected from cold winds. Growing in damp, low areas leads to fungal diseases and plant death.
One of the main requirements for tomato varieties is early maturity with a more friendly early ripening of fruits. High yield with good keeping quality, resistance to fungal diseases (especially late blight and fruit cracking), high nutritional and taste qualities.
Varieties are distinguished by the precocity of obtaining the crop after germination:
- early ripening - 50 - 60 days;
- mid-season - 70–95 days;
- late ripening - 115 - 120 days.
Dates of sowing and planting seedlings at a permanent place:
- For protected ground without heating (film or glazed greenhouses):
- sowing dates - 15.11 - 10.III.
- landing dates - 20.IV - 15.V.
- For open ground with temporary sheeting:
- sowing dates - 1-20.III.
- landing time in o / soil - 15 V - 10. VI.
- For open ground without shelter:
- sowing dates - 15.III - 25.III.
- landing - 10 - 12 VI.
Where is it better to buy seedlings?
It is better to buy seedlings at companies that have protected soil, where healthy, strong, hardened seedlings are grown, which have the first buds of a flower brush, such seedlings will give a good harvest.
Seedlings grown on a window sill at room conditions
Most gardeners prefer to grow their own seedlings and get good results.
So, let's start in order.
Let's start with the acquisition of tomato varieties and hybrids. Any acquired variety seeds or hybrids must be soaked in a nutrient solution.
Solutions for soaking seeds before sowing:
- 2 g of the “Bud” preparation (growth regulator) are diluted in 1 liter of water.
- 1 teaspoon of Agricola-Start liquid fertilizer is diluted in 1 liter of water.
- For 1 liter of water, 3 teaspoons of the bacterial preparation "Barrier" are bred.
- 1 liter of water is bred 1 tbsp. spoon of organic fertilizer "Barrier", before soaking the seeds, strain the solution.
- 1 teaspoon of nitrophoska is diluted in 1 liter of water.
- 1 tbsp dilute 1 tbsp of water. a spoonful of wood ash.
- 1 teaspoon of Ideal liquid fertilizer is diluted in 1 liter of water.
- 1 ml of Epin is diluted in 1 liter of water.
To get constantly high, stable tomato crops, you need to grow several varieties for several years, and then from the tested ones you like, choose 3-4 varieties for both protected and open ground. Do not grow seedlings from your own seeds.
Having chosen any solution (solution temperature not lower than 20 ° С), the seeds are lowered in tissue bags for 24 hours. Then the seeds are removed from the solution. A wet cloth bag is placed in a small plastic bag and placed in the middle of the refrigerator for quenching for 1-2 days. After cooling, the seeds are immediately sown in the soil. As a result, they give quick friendly shoots.
Soil mixtures for sowing seeds and growing seedlings
To prepare the soil mixture:
- Take 1 part of peat, humus and sod land.
- One teaspoon of superphosphate, potassium sulfate, urea is added to a bucket of this mixture.
- 1 tbsp. a spoon of organic breadwinner and 2 tbsp. tablespoons Deoxidant fertilizer.
- Use ready-made soil mixtures - universal or specifically for tomato.
Soil mixtures from peat, humus and turf land are necessarily warmed in the oven at a temperature of 100-115 ° C for 20 minutes. To do this, the soil (necessarily moistened) is poured onto a baking sheet with a layer of 3-5 cm.
Humus is usually taken from a 3-5 year old pile, and turf soil is harvested from a site where perennial grasses have been growing for at least 5 years.
From the beds where vegetable, flower crops grew, take land not allowed! Otherwise, the seedlings will die. I especially draw your attention to the fact that from the flowerbed where the flowers grow, categorically take the land for growing seedlings and indoor flowers not allowed!
Sowing seeds for seedlings
Any of the listed soil mixtures are thoroughly mixed. This is done in advance, a week before sowing. The soil should be slightly moist. On the day of sowing, it is poured into boxes, boxes, flattened, slightly compacted. Then, grooves are made through 5 - 6 cm deep to 1 cm.Furrows are watered with a warm (35 - 40 ° С) solution "Bud" (growth regulator), 1 g of the drug per 1 liter of water. Or you can pour it with any solution (see for soaking seeds). Seeds are sown in grooves with a distance of 1.5 - 2 cm, not more often. After sowing, the seeds are sprinkled with a soil mixture, without watering from above.
Sowing boxes (called sowing for school, i.e. thickened crops) put in a warm (air temperature not lower than 22 ° С and not higher than 25 ° С) bright place. In order to sprout faster (after 5 to 6 days), film caps are put on the drawers.
- Encyclopedia of gardener and gardener - O.A. Ganichkina, A.V. Ganichkin