Manure is the best organic fertilizer
Currently, to form high yields and maintain soil fertility, summer residents everywhere use available mineral fertilizers, which contain elements removed from the soil by the crop. You need to know that tuks provide only a short-term increase in crop yields, while reducing the amount of humus in the soil, that is, the natural fertility of the soil. In recent years, there have been a growing number of landowners who switched to ecological farming. The basis of ecology is in this case the use of only natural products in everyday life, the receipt of which is impossible without returning to mother earth the substances that took the crop. A worthy substitute for "chemical well-being" are natural fertilizers - the waste of animals that eat plant foods. Such organic fertilizer is manure.
What is the difference between organic and mineral fertilizers?
Mineral fertilizers are produced at chemical plants and, when introduced into the soil, are a foreign substance for plants that must be converted into an accessible form of use.
- To become available to plants, nutrient salt elements must be converted to chelate form.
- Mineral fertilizers contain only a narrow list of chemical elements necessary for plants.
- Tuki contribute to the soil, taking into account its parameters and the needs of plants.
- Mineral fertilizers do not contribute to the formation of humus, thereby reducing natural soil fertility.
The nutrients of organic fertilizers are more accessible to plants, as they are a product of animal activity, and in the ecosystem it is its natural element. The only restriction in agriculture: with improper agricultural technology, nitrites accumulate in fruits and vegetables. Organic waste during processing forms humus, which determines the level of soil fertility.
Types of manure and its features
The following types of manure are obtained from animals:
- cow (mullein);
- bird (chicken);
- sheep, etc.
Each type of manure has its own characteristics and composition, differs in the duration of exposure to the soil.
Efficiency cow manure: It is most effective for 2–3 years on light sandy and sandy loamy soils and 4–6 years on heavy clay soils.
Bird droppings decomposes over the course of a year. This is the fastest organic fertilizer. It is convenient to use in top dressing. However, the concentration of bird droppings is so high that its use in the form of top dressing is possible only when diluted 10-12 times.
Horse dung - one of the best. Porous structure and rich chemical composition, high decomposition temperature, it is most effective when used in open ground and greenhouses. In connection with the mechanization of agriculture, the amount of horse manure in farms has decreased significantly. He became less accessible than mullein.
Pig manure used by gardeners to a lesser extent. It contains a high nitrogen content (pungent ammonia odor), a large number of helminths. Fresh can not be used. Usually mixed with horse, add dolomite flour, compost for a year for natural disinfection (from helminths), and only then put into the soil. Pig manure is good because it has a high decomposition temperature. In combination with horse for a year of fermentation receive high-quality compost.
If necessary, manure of other animals and birds is used to improve soil performance and increase soil fertility.
Useful properties of manure
The basis of manure is the excrement of various animals mixed with litter (straw, grass, sawdust and other plant residues). According to the degree of decaying, manure can be divided into 3 categories:
- fresh manure bedding and bedding;
- semi-rotted manure;
- rotted manure, or humus.
Fresh manure without bedding, not diluted with water - a thick, not fluid form, the consistency of homemade sour cream (can be cut with a knife like butter).
Fresh litter manure easily maintains the attached shape, mixed with straw or other materials (sawdust, fine shavings).
Slurry is less concentrated than fresh manure. Basically, this is a nitrogen-potassium liquid fertilizer, which is used for feeding all garden and berry and vegetable crops. In order not to burn the plants, the slurry is bred in a ratio of 1: 5-6. Make after watering. Used to moisten when laying compost.
Half-matured - it lay in the open air for some time (3-6 months), partially dried and decomposed. The litter is rotten, easily crumbles in the hands. It is used as the main fertilizer for digging, especially on humus-poor soils.
Humus is a completely rotted loose mass in which the individual components of the litter and other inclusions are not visible. The most common of the natural fertilizers used by summer residents.
The humus content of nutrients and nitrogen, compared with fresh manure, is 2-3 times less, which allows you to use it directly in the growing season of plants for feeding.
The content of basic nutrients in manure
The composition of manure includes components that provide nutrition to plants, improve the physico-chemical properties of the soil, its structure. Being a source of organic matter, manure during fermentation forms humic compounds that increase the natural fertility of the soil.
Manure in any condition (fresh, semi-matured, humus) is a source of macro- and microelements such as nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium, silicon, sulfur, chlorine, magnesium, boron, manganese, cobalt, copper, zinc, molybdenum. Active manure microorganisms are the main source of energy for soil microflora.
All types of manure are alkaline, the alkalinity reaches pH = 8-9 units. In cow manure it is 8.1, in horse manure - 7.8, in pig manure - 7.9 units. Naturally, their application alkalizes the soil, reducing acidity. The content of the main nutrients is presented in the averaged indicators of table 1.
Table 1. The chemical composition of the main types of manure and litter
|Manure, litter||Content, g / kg of manure|
The use of manure
Unlike mineral fertilizers, the nutrient content of organic fertilizers is much lower, but organics improve the physicochemical properties of the soil, loosen, increase the absorption capacity, enrich with beneficial microflora, and provide plants with essential nutrients in an accessible, easily digestible form.
Table 2. The rate of introduction of manure
|Manure, litter||Contribute to the soil, kg / sq. m square|
|Cow (Mullein)||7-10 kg / m²|
|Horse||3-5 kg / m²|
|Pork||4-6 kg / m²|
Some gardeners recommend up to 10-15 kg / m² for autumn digging
|Avian (chicken)||1-3 kg / m² for autumn digging. In top dressing solution 1: 10-12 liters of water.|
Rules for the use of fresh manure
Since fresh manure is the most concentrated fertilizer, it is introduced into the ground in autumn and winter on a field free of fruit and vegetable plants. Close up to a depth of 25-30, less often - up to 40 cm.
Spring application is provided only for middle and late crops. Under early crops, manure is introduced only for autumn digging (Table 3).
Table 3. Frequency and rate of application of fresh cow manure
|Culture||Application rate, kg / m²||Application Frequency|
|Onions, cabbage, garlic||4-6 kg / m²||From autumn or spring to dig|
|Cucumbers, zucchini, squash, pumpkins, melons||6-8 kg / m²||From autumn or spring to dig|
|Tomatoes late, middle and late varieties of white cabbage||4-5 kg / m², for cabbage up to 6 kg / m²||From autumn or spring to dig|
|Dill, celery||5-6 kg / m²||From autumn or spring to dig|
|Carrots, potatoes, beets||4 kg / m²||From autumn or spring to dig|
|Berry (currant, raspberry, gooseberry)||Layer up to 5 cm||Only in autumn annually|
|Pome fruits and stone fruits||Up to 3 kg for each tree||Autumn with an interval of 2-3 years|
|Strawberry wild-strawberry||10 kg / m² in row spacing||Autumn, 1 time in 3 years|
|Grape||Solution: 1 part mullein on 20 parts of water||In the fall, once every 2-4 years|
In winter, fresh manure is scattered in the snow. After the snow melts, it falls onto the soil and is dug in the spring. Depth of embedment is the same as in autumn.
The application rate for snow is 1.5 times higher. This is due to the fact that during the winter some of the nutrients are lost (nitrogen). Usually manure is left in the pile before application for 2-3 months. During this period, from the high temperature of “burning manure”, part of the weed seeds die. If the manure from the barn immediately fell into the field, then it is better to leave it under steam, destroying weeds in the summer.
Remember that any crops, especially vegetables, overfed with organics, dramatically reduce keeping quality. Vegetables and especially root crops are more often affected by root rot, the incidence of late blight and powdery mildew increases. In order not to overfeed the plants, use the data in table 3.
Table 3. The volume of the mass of manure, kg / 10 l bucket
|Fresh manure||10 liter bucket|
|Cow without litter||9 kg|
|Cow Litter||5 kg|
Using fresh mullein for dressing
Mullein can feed vegetables and horticultural crops during the summer season. For top dressing, low concentrated aqueous fermented solutions are used.
Solution preparation: any container (more conveniently a galvanized barrel) is 1/3 filled with manure, added to the top with water, and closed. Stir once a day. Fermentation lasts 1-2 weeks. This is a mother liquor.
To feed the berries and fruit trees, a working solution is prepared: 1 bucket of the mother liquor from the tank is diluted 3-4 times with water. Feeding is carried out in the phase of young leaves. The working solution is added after watering under the root at the rate of 10 l of working solution per 1 m². Be sure to mulch.
For vegetable crops, a working solution is prepared based on 1 liter of a mother liquor of 8-10 liters of water. Top dressing is carried out during watering or after watering under mulching, 1-2 times during the growing season, alternating with mineral fertilizers (if necessary).
The use of semi-rotted manure
Semi-rotted manure is less concentrated and can be used directly as fertilizer or as mulch.
For top dressing, a solution is prepared in concentration: one part of fertilizer per 10 parts of water. Stir and contribute to garden and berry crops.
Trees are watered on the outer diameter of the crown to loosened soil or to furrows cut in 1-2 rows around the crown.
Under the bushes make top dressing retreating 15-20 cm from the bushes.
Under vegetables in the furrows of the aisles (if they are wide) or in the furrows cut along the beds.
Under the root of the plants, a solution of half-ripened mullein cannot be poured.
Top dressing is covered with soil, if necessary, watered and mulched.
Semi-ripened mass is a good fertilizer for cabbage, pumpkin, spinach. With such fertilizer, these crops will be excellent predecessors for root crops, sweet pepper, tomatoes, and eggplant.
The use of rotted manure
Overripe manure, or humus, is the main source of humus in the soil. Humus is a homogeneous loose substance of a dark brown color, with a spring smell of a healthy soil substrate. It is formed by fermentation of manure under the influence of microorganisms. As a result, humus, humic acids and simpler mineral compounds are formed. The humus is light in composition. 1 m³ contains 700-800 kg of humus. In a standard 10 liter bucket, its amount is 6-7 kg. Healthy ripe humus is odorless.
The higher the content of humus in the soil, the more fertile the substrate is considered. So, in chernozems, the content of humus is 80-90%, and in sod-podzolic its amount decreases to 60-70%.
Humus has the following agronomic properties:
- improves soil porosity;
- increases the ability to retain moisture;
- enhances photosynthesis, thereby increasing crop yields;
- activates the growth and development of plants;
- increases resistance to diseases and pests;
- populates the soil substrate with beneficial microflora;
- reduces the accumulation of heavy metals in products;
- improves the decorativeness of flower crops, etc.
How to cook high-quality humus?
- Allocate space in the shade for storing components
- enclose with improvised material so that the front wall is open;
- components are laid in layers, in 10-15 cm; components - straw, straw cutting, leaves, fresh manure, half-ripened;
- each layer is shed with water or diluted slurry, mullein solution;
- on top cover with a film or other material that does not let water through (from rain);
- air access through vents with film shelter is required;
- periodically shovel and in dry weather watered; humidity during fermentation in the range of 50-60%, temperature under + 25 ... + 30 * C;
- To accelerate fermentation, it is recommended to shed the layers of components with preparations (Baikal EM-1, Ekomik Yield, Radiance-3 and others).
If all the requirements are met, a mature humus can be obtained within 1-2 months.
In addition to the proposed, there are other methods for the quick processing of manure into humus or compost, which also goes to fertilizer and fertilizing garden crops. For example, vermicomposting using California worms, aerobic and anaerobic composting.
The use of humus in suburban areas
Humus is used for:
- improving soil fertility;
- fertilizers and fertilizing crops during the growing season;
- preparation of soil mixtures for growing seedlings;
- preparation of soil mixtures for indoor flowering crops, etc.
Rules for the use of humus
In humus, there are minimal ammonia residues that do not damage the root system of plants. Therefore, humus can be applied as the main fertilizer, or used in top dressing during the warm season.
During spring preparation of the soil for sowing / planting plants, humus in the recommended amounts is applied in a 10-15 cm layer of soil for digging. On average, 10-15 kg of humus are used per 1 m² of area.
Humus is used for all crops as mulch, which, rotting during the summer, serves as an additional fertilizer for cultivated plants.
Humus is included in most soil mixtures for growing seedlings and flower crops. But if for seedlings the soil mixture can contain up to 50% humus, then a moderate rate of fertilizer is applied under flower bed crops. Excess humus can cause “fattening” of the ageratum, eschsolzia, cosmea. To the detriment of flowering, plants will increase their vegetative mass.
For indoor plants, the humus rate is up to 1/3 of the volume of the prepared substrate.
Raspberries and other shrubs can be mulched with a 5 cm layer of mulch from spring to July without planting in the soil.
In greenhouses, humus is applied to the beds (in addition to the main substrate) in the first year at a rate of 40-60 kg / m². In subsequent years, before the change of soil, 15–25 kg / m² are applied annually.
In summer, the humus is bred with water for foliar and root dressing at the rate of not more than 1 part per 10-15 parts of water.
Humus, like fresh manure, is used to equip warm beds.
A short list of the use of manure and its processed species clearly highlighted the benefits of organic matter to the land. Using organic fertilizers, you can solve many issues of home gardening and horticulture, including the main one - increasing the natural fertility of the site.
Dear readers! Share your methods of processing and using manure, humus, compost for garden and horticultural crops. Share your experience in subsistence farming with minimal use of unusual fertilizers and other chemicals to increase soil fertility, increase productivity, and increase crop immunity to diseases and pests.