Formative pruning of apple and pear seedlings
Hello dear gardeners, gardeners and gardeners. Now you go to the markets, exhibitions, various garden centers, get seedlings. Many of you planted them last year. As for the annual seedlings planted last year and uncircumcised, that is, you have not initially formed growth points, then you are doing it now. First of all, we look at a two-year-old seedling, how it differs from a one-year-old seedling - this is because a one-year-old seedling, as a rule, in 99 cases with us, is only one twig, only one shoot, and a two-year-old seedling should already have lateral branches of the first order, that is, only these shoots extending from the main trunk. All.
What are we watching? We chose a seedling when buying already with these branches, and already paid attention to how the branches are located, at good angles. Look at the good departure angles. They should not be less than 45 ° -50 °, and can even reach 90 ° under such an inclination. This is all normal when the angle of departure is 70 ° -80 ° -90 °. These are ideal branch angles that will firmly retain the crown for many, many decades.
Having chosen such a pretty seedling, when the shoots move in different directions at a good angle, we begin to form it.
Please look, why is this branch needed? Why is this escape so deadly, stunted? We do not need him at all. Here he is in the middle. We delete it. If we delete, then delete on the ring. And make a cut on the ring.
Following. This is the topmost branch. We take and cut from it about 1/3 so that the cut is at the level of this kidney. The kidney, after escaping, will not go to the center of the apple, but to the outside. Here you and I have to make a cut - above the kidney.
Cut off. What's next? The second one. We must cut it to the outer bud so that our tree is sprawling, lower, and not as tall as a mast. In this case, we select a kidney that leaves the crown. It should be located in height relative to this slice slightly lower - by 5-7-10 centimeters. We find this kidney and cut it off.
Next is the third highest branch. We make a cut on the lower kidney so that the cut is lower than the previous one. Cut off.
For the next branch, we make sure that the cut level is lower, and so that the kidney leaves the crown. We make a cut.
The next branch is also well located, in different directions and at a good angle. Here we have a kidney, it did not go outside, but a little to the side. It's okay, we will deploy it later. We make a cut.
Next we have a branch, but we leave it for now.
The lowest branch should develop. Maybe this is a hoof. Fruits may appear for this year or next, so we leave it for now.
It would be nice for us to organize another skeletal twig. Here we see a good kidney. In order to give an impetus to its development, we make an arc-shaped incision 5 mm higher above it. We cut the bark, the cambial layer, and you can even touch the wood a little. We cut and remove the bark by 2-3 mm. We don’t cover anything. Our juices go up to the kidney, pass further to the upper branches, and slow down, because there are no tissues in the incision site that conduct these juices. Thanks to this, juices fill the kidney, the kidney awakens and gives a new shoot. Thus, we will organize a new escape where it is convenient for us.
If you, on the contrary, have a very large shoot, and you need to slow down the development, in this case you do not cut over the top, but under it about 5 mm. In this case, the juices will not flow to this branch and it will slow down in growth while other branches will develop well in you.
Many say that it is necessary to cover up the place of the cut, someone says that it is not necessary. My dears, there is a balm-varnish that does not get dirty, stays on a tree for a long time, does not erode. I would advise you to cover these wounds with balm-varnish or any other putty that you use. Coat, although you can read that wounds up to 3 cm do not need to be coated. My dears, listen to my advice, and everything will grow remarkably on your site.
Candidate of Agricultural Sciences Nikolai Petrovich Fursov.