Onions, or "Cipollino" in your garden
Everyone knows how useful this vegetable is, and almost everyone has this plant growing in the garden. Onions - one of the most popular and very ancient products of plant origin. For more than six thousand years, people eat it and use it for medicinal purposes. We eat onions year-round, because it is remarkably preserved from crop to crop. This article is all about the agricultural technology of onions: sowing or planting, care, pest control.
- Botanical Description of Onions
- Sowing onion seeds for seedlings
- Choosing a place for planting onions and preparing the soil
- Planting onions
- Diseases and pests of onions
Botanical Description of Onions
Bulb onions, Latin - Allium cepa, folk - arbazheyka, bulbyanka, tsybul, sibul. The most common of all types of onions. Divided into var. viviparum (multi-tiered) and var. solaninum (multi-crested). Perennial plant (in the culture - biennial).
Onion bulb up to 15 cm in diameter, membranous. The outer scales are dry, yellow, less often purple or white; internal - fleshy, white, greenish or purple, located on a shortened stem, called the bottom. On the bottom in the axils of the juicy scales are the kidneys, giving rise to daughter bulbs, forming a "nest" of several bulbs.
The leaves are tubular, bluish-green. Flower arrow up to 1.5 m tall, hollow, swollen, ending with a multi-flowered umbrella inflorescence. Flowers on long pedicels. Perianth greenish-white up to 1 cm in diameter, of six leaves, stamens 6; pestle with an upper three-celled ovary. Sometimes in the inflorescence, in addition to flowers, small bulbs are formed. Fruit - a box containing up to six seeds. Seeds are black, trihedral, wrinkled, small. It blooms in June and July. The fruits ripen in August.
Composition: contains sugars, proteins, mineral salts, amino acids, essential oils. Onions are rich in vitamins A, B1, B2, B6, PP and especially ascorbic acid, the daily requirement of which a person can satisfy by eating only 80-90 g of green leaves of the plant per day.
Sowing onion seeds for seedlings
Grooves for onions make a depth of 1 cm after 2-3 cm from each other. The distance between the seeds should be 0.5 cm. The approximate consumption rate of 10-12 g per 1 m. After sowing, the soil in the box is slightly compacted and carefully watered through a strainer. To accelerate the germination of plants, the box is covered with a film and put in a warm place.
The optimal regime for growing onion seedlings is 18–20 ° С in the daytime and 10–12 ° С in the night. Higher temperatures and longer days contribute to the elongation of plants and the premature formation of medium-sized bulbs. To prevent this from happening, plants are obscured by available methods. They also try to lower the temperature after the emergence of seedlings by ventilation and watering.
Given that onions are very resistant to frost, and real leaves can withstand temperatures of minus 3-6 ° C, seedlings can be planted in open ground at the end of April. At this point, she should have 3-4 leaves. Before being sent to the garden, it is sorted, the roots are dipped in a mash of clay and mullein. With a leaf length of more than 15 cm, they are shortened with scissors by 1/3.
It is advisable to plant onion seedlings with multi-line ribbons. They are placed at a distance of 50 cm, and row from row in the ribbon - after 18-20 cm, plants in a row should be after 7-10 cm. If the soil is dry, then the grooves are pre-watered at the rate of 1 liter per 3 plants. Laying out seedlings along the grooves, at the same time, with the index finger, press the roots to the side wall. Then the groove is filled up, and the soil near the roots is compacted. Seedlings, planted obliquely, rise as they root. It should be planted 1 cm deeper than it was in the drawer. Too deep landing delays the growth and maturation of onions.
Choosing a place for planting onions and preparing the soil
Onion is a relatively cold-resistant plant. It easily tolerates spring frosts, but in the “loop” phase, seedlings can die at a temperature of -2- -3 ° С. The optimum temperature for leaf growth is 15-25 ° C, but they can withstand frosts down to -7 ° C and heat above 35 ° C.
In relation to light, onion is a rather demanding plant, needs a high light intensity, especially when grown from seeds. Moisture is most needed for plants during the first growing season, while dry and hot weather is required for bulb ripening.
Onions impose particularly high demands on soil fertility, since with relatively strong leaf development it has a weak root system. Well-fertilized and weed-free areas are diverted under it. The soil should have a reaction close to neutral (pH 6.4-7.9). The beds are prepared in the fall, immediately after harvesting the predecessor. For digging, well-rotted raw manure, humus, various aged composts of 3-5 kg / m2 or bird droppings - 1-2 kg / m2 are brought in. Effective fertilizer is also wood ash in a dose of 0.5-1 kg / m2.
Fresh manure for onions should not be introduced, otherwise the growth of leaves does not stop for a long time, while the bulbs begin to form late, do not mature, are severely affected by cervical decay, and are poorly stored.
Onions are responsive to the application of mineral fertilizers. In the initial period of growth, nitrogen and potassium are especially necessary for him, later, during the formation of the bulb - potassium and phosphorus. The dose of superphosphate is 25-30 g / m2, potassium salt is 15-20, urea is 10 g / m2, with 2/3 or 1/2 of the entire dose of superphosphate and potassium fertilizers being introduced in the fall, and the remainder and nitrogen fertilizer in the spring. Fertilizers must be applied in small doses.
Sevka is a valuable seed material, on the quality of which the future onion turnip crop depends in many respects. Sevoc is grown from black onion. For sowing, use dry or wetted seeds. Soak the seeds for 2-9 days at room temperature, changing the water, or in warm (40 ° C) water for 8 hours.
Sow onions in autumn or spring, as soon as the soil permits. Preliminarily arrange ridges, the surface of which is carefully leveled and harrowed with a rake. The width of the ridges is approximately 1 m, the distance between the rows where the seeds are sown is 12-15 cm. The sown seeds are covered with humus (layer 1-1.5 cm), and mulched on top with peat or leafy soil. To obtain onion turnips, use a sowing with a diameter of 1.5-2.5 cm. Before planting, the bulbs are sorted out, separating the dried and sick.
If in the previous year the plants were affected by downy mildew, the seeds for disinfection 10-15 days before planting are heated at a temperature of 40-42 ° C for 8 hours.
Sowing is planted in warm soil usually in early May. To accelerate regrowth, it is cut “shoulders” and soaked in water with slurry (6: 1) for 12-24 hours.
On a previously prepared ridge, grooves marking the rows are drawn, and the seeds are planted in them. On a ridge 1 m wide, sowing is planted in 3-5 lines with a distance of 20 cm between them. Planting depth should be such that the bulbs are in a moist soil layer. They are sprinkled with humus, a layer of at least 2 cm.
Sevka planted before winter is best grown on ridges so that meltwater does not flood it in spring. The ridges are seasoned with humus, mineral fertilizers and ash. Planted onion sets in late September and first half of October. The planting depth is 3-4 cm, the distance between the rows is 20-25 cm, between the bulbs in the row - 4-5 cm. The ridges are mulched with humus or peat compost, a layer of 2-2.5 cm. It is good to cover them with dry leaves on top.
Diseases and pests of onions
Plants are affected both during the growing season and during storage. When infected in a field in young plants, the leaves turn yellow, starting from the top, and die. Plants quickly wither and die. A white fluffy mycelium forms on the roots and scales of the bulbs. Small point sclerotia appears on the affected tissue. This mushroom develops well at a temperature of 10-20 ° C. Winters in soil and in storages on infected bulbs.
Control measures: First of all, you need to get healthy planting material. Harvesting of onion bulbs should be carried out during their full maturation, followed by drying of the bulbs in sunny weather in an open place in one layer, in wet - first under a canopy, and then for 7-10 days indoors when air is heated to 26-35 ° .
When trimming onions, leave a neck 3-6 cm long. It is recommended to store onions under optimal conditions: food - at a temperature of 1-3 ° C and a relative humidity of 75-80%, uterine bulbs - at 2-5 ° C and 70-80% , sevk - at 18-20 ° С and 60-70%.
This is a viral disease that affects leaves and inflorescences. On the leaves, the disease manifests itself in the form of small, more or less elongated specks or wide light green or cream stripes. Sometimes the leaves become corrugated, lag behind in growth and lie down. The arrows are bent, longitudinal mosaic stripes are visible on them. The inflorescences of the affected plant are loose, the flowers are sterile or produce very few seeds. Instead of stamens and pestles, long leaves often develop, instead of flowers, onions.
Seed germination from diseased plants is reduced. Onion bulbs from infected plants often have an elongated shape and, not reaching maturity, germinate. The disease is transmitted by a four-legged garlic mite. The infection persists in the onion sets, the uterus onions and in perennial onions, on which the disease manifests itself in the form of a weak mosaic of leaves.
Control measures: The main measures to combat viral diseases of onions and garlic are to obtain healthy planting material, protection against virus carriers, selection of uterine bulbs from healthy plants, and removal of diseased onion sets.
This is a widespread insect. It damages all types of onions, garlic, gladioli, tulips, daffodils and other plants. The larvae that penetrate the bulbs destroy them and cause decay.
Adult fly about 9 mm long, greenish-bronze in color, with short blond hairs and black-brown antennae. White eggs, elongated without a longitudinal groove, 0.8 mm long. Larvae are grayish-yellow, strongly wrinkled, flattened from the ventral side, up to 11 mm long. At the rear end of the body is a reddish-brown process with two outgrowths on the sides. False cocoons about 8 mm long, tan. The posterior end of the body is the same as that of the larva.
Control measures: Use healthy planting material. Spatial isolation of onion crops from last year's crops. Arrangement (or alternation) of rows of onions and carrots, onion crops next to carrot crops. Phytoncides secreted by carrot leaves repel onion pests.
Mulching with peat between rows is recommended, as the pest avoids peaty soils. The use of drugs with a strong odor such as naphthalene mixed with sand in a ratio of 1:10, tobacco dust in its pure form or in half with lime or ash (1-2 kg per 10 sq. M). Processing is carried out in the initial period of egg laying. Subsequent - after 7-8 days.
It is necessary to periodically inspect crops, remove and destroy damaged bulbs. At the end of the growing season, remove the tops, damaged bulbs, followed by digging the soil. Good results are obtained by treatment with infusion or decoction of a phytoncid plant - tobacco. Use leaves, stems. For infusion, take 400 g of crushed raw materials or dust, insist two days in 10 l of water. The infusion is filtered. To the resulting solution was added 40 g of soap. For a decoction, take 400 g of dried raw materials per 10 liters of water, insist for a day, then boil for 2 hours. After cooling, add another 10 L of water and add 40 g of soap for every 10 L of solution.
Distributed everywhere. Damages leeks, onions, garlic. It is painted in gray-brown tones, has a wingspan of 8-10 mm, with dark fringe on the wings. Larvae are caused by moth larvae - caterpillars that hatch from butterflies laid by butterflies. Caterpillars penetrate the tubular leaves of the onion and feed there.
Damaged leaves turn yellow and dry, starting from the apical part. On onion sets, caterpillars often penetrate the neck and even inside the bulb, causing complete plant death. On leeks and garlic, caterpillars mine leaves, on the testes they feed in buds, eat out the rudiments of flowers, bite stalks, which leads to a decrease in seed yield. More harmful in hot, dry years.
Control measures: crop rotation and proper agricultural practices must be observed. Return the onion to its original place no earlier than after 3-6 years. Modern cultivation and top dressing with mineral fertilizers. Destruction of plant debris. Spraying seedlings with insecticides during the summer of butterflies and the appearance of caterpillars.
Widespread hazardous pest (especially in wet years). The fly is light gray in color, 10 mm long, the larvae are small white worms. It harms more on sandy and loamy soils, less on peat. More damage to onions in household plots during permanent cultivation of crops, less - garlic.
Departure of flies is observed in mid-late May. Eggs are laid in groups of 5-12 pieces between onion leaves or in a soil gap near plants. After 5-9 days, depending on the conditions of the year, larvae hatch. They penetrate plants through the base of the leaves or the bottom. Larvae gnaw out large cavities in the bulb. Due to damage, the bulbs rot, leaves turn yellow, usually in the apical part, and fade.
Damaged bulbs emit an unpleasant odor, and when they are opened, white, legless, headless larvae up to 10 mm long are found inside. The development of larvae takes 16-20 days, after which they go into the soil for pupation.
Control measures: spatial isolation of onion crops from last year's crops. Phytoncides secreted by carrot leaves repel the onion fly. Early sowing of onions contributes to resistance to damage by the onion fly, because by the time the flies leave, the plants will have become stronger, coarser and less damaged by the pest.
Mulching with peat between rows is recommended, as the pest avoids peaty soils. Subsequent - after 7-8 days.
It is necessary to periodically inspect crops, remove and destroy damaged bulbs. At the end of the growing season, remove the tops, damaged bulbs, followed by digging the soil.
Good results are obtained by treatment with infusion or decoction of a phytoncid plant - tobacco. After cooling, add another 10 L of water and add 40 g of soap for every 10 L of solution.
Onion Secretive Hunter
Beetles and larvae damage onions, bulgarian onions, chives, less often - garlic. Beetles are black, 2-3 mm long. The antennae and legs are red-brown. Larvae are yellowish, legless, with a brown head, 7 mm long. Beetles in tubular leaves eat small cavities, as a result of which round white spots form on them. Larvae eat out the flesh inside the leaf, in longitudinal strips, without touching the outer skin. In damaged plants, the leaves turn yellow from the top and dry. On the testes of onions, beetles gnaw stalks, causing the death of flowers.
Control measures: collection and destruction of post-harvest residues, autumn plowing, destroying the wintering places of beetles. Additional loosening of row-spacing during the period of mass pupation of larvae with subsequent watering and top dressing with mineral fertilizers, the addition of deterrents - wood ash, ground black and red pepper, dry mustard. Removing damaged leaves with the destruction of larvae. Spraying plants during the growing season with Karbofos - 60 g per 10 l of water. One liter of solution is consumed per 10 sq.m.
Tobacco Onion Thrips
A common pest. It damages onions, tobacco, cabbage, watermelon, cucumbers in greenhouses.Adults are light yellow or brown in color with narrow wings bordered at the edges by a fringe, about 1 mm long. The eggs are small, kidney-shaped, white. Larvae are similar in appearance to adult thrips, but differ in smaller sizes, without wings, at first whitish, then greenish in color. Adult thrips overwinter on plant debris in the topsoil, but the main amount is concentrated under the scales of the bulbs. In early spring, they feed on weeds, then switch to cultivated plants.
If the onion is damaged, silver-white spots appear on the leaves. In places where thrips are fed to the naked eye, the phytophage excrement in the form of black dots is visible. Damaged leaves turn yellow, die off, starting from the apical part of the plant. If the inflorescences of the testes are damaged, the latter turn yellow, then dry, no seeds are formed, or they are feeble, with low germination. Some part of the pest population gets into the storehouse with bulbs, where it continues to develop under favorable conditions.
Control measures: Thermal disinfection of seeds and sowing in heated water at a temperature of 45-50 ° C for 10-15 minutes. Sowing only with healthy seed. Compliance with crop rotation with the return of onions, garlic to its original place no earlier than after 3-4 years. Before laying onions for storage, make mandatory decontamination of storages, drying and heating the bulbs at a temperature of 35-37 ° C for 5-7 days. In storage at a positive temperature, maintain air humidity not higher than 70%. Effective treatment with Iskra DE (1 tablet per 10 liters of water). Spend 10 liters of solution per 100 sq.m.
Onions can replace a whole pharmacy, because it helps from many ailments. The most famous medicine is onion syrup, indispensable for colds, especially coughs and sore throats. Preparing such a syrup is very easy: mix the finely chopped onion with three tablespoons of honey, close the lid and let it brew in the refrigerator (6 hours). Take strained juice every 3 hours, one tablespoon. And be healthy!