There are several ways to propagate cacti. They can be propagated by seeds, stem cuttings and grafting.
The seeds of many cacti germinate on the 5-7th day, but some of them germinate only after a month. Sowing is best done in April and early May. The crop plate needs to be heated, for which it is placed on a heating pad, in which warm water is changed several times a day, maintaining a temperature of 25-30 °. To better grow them from seeds and cuttings, you can use indoor greenhouses and greenhouses. The seed tray must have large drainage holes that cover the shards. A drainage layer of crushed stone, shards, coal and river sand is poured on top, onto which finely sifted earth is poured, so that one centimeter remains to the edges of the bowl. She is pressed against a plank. Small seeds are not sprinkled with earth.
A seed sowing bowl is placed in warm water, 2-3 ° higher than air temperature, so that water enters through drainage holes and moistens the ground and seeds. Crops are covered with glass and put in a warm place. When seedlings appear, the plates are transferred to a bright place. From the direct rays of the sun they are shaded with tissue paper or whitewashed with chalk. A temperature of 18–20 ° is required for seed germination of most cacti. After the emergence of seedlings, watering is reduced and the glass is raised. Seedlings are picked after the first spines appear in them with the help of a wooden fork and a peg. The roots do not pinch, they do not shake the ground from them.
Cactus seedlings are very small and therefore they need to be dived 2-3 times during the summer. Picks shade, hold one day without watering and two or three days without airing.
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The ground between them is loosened with a sharp stick, the mold crust is removed and sprinkled with powdered powdered charcoal. If the soil is acidified, the plants are transplanted into good nutritious soil.
Cuttings of cacti are cut in the spring and in the first half of summer. The apical and lateral shoots, individual papillae serve as cuttings, and leaves of the leaf-bearing cactus. Cuttings are carried out in boxes or pots. A drainage layer is poured to the bottom of the box or pot, then a layer of hard-peat soil with sand 2 cm and on top is coarse river sand about 3 cm. Pots and boxes with cuttings are covered with glass jars. Cuttings are cut with a sharp knife. A slice on the mother plant is dried in the sun, moistened with alcohol and sprinkled with coal powder. In plants that secrete milky sap, filter paper is applied to the cut, which absorbs the sap.
Cuttings must be dried for 7-10 days in a dry room. In this case, the sections are covered with a glassy film. The cuttings are planted in sand to a depth of 0.5 - 1 cm. For stability, they are tied to pegs (Fig. 1). The sand is only moistened, and after rooting the cuttings they are watered. You can prepare cuttings from autumn and store them in dry sand until spring. In the spring, they take root well.
Cacti can be propagated by "children" that appear on the mother stem. They can be rooted in the same pot or planted several "children" in separate pots.
Inoculation of cacti is carried out: 1 - to accelerate growth and abundant flowering; 2 - for better growth of those that have a weak root system; 3 — to obtain interspecific and intergeneric vegetative hybrids with bizarre decorative forms. When decaying the roots and lower part of the stem, the top of the cactus is grafted onto a healthy stock; annual seedlings are planted on adult plants to accelerate their growth and flowering. Vaccinations are carried out in the warm season.
Cacti are grafted on a leaf-bearing cactus (Peirescia), superficial cacti (cereus), prickly pears and hedgehog cacti (echinocactus). The graft and stock should be of the same diameter and equally juicy. First, a stock is quickly cut with a sharp knife; in plants with a large diameter around the stem cut obliquely. Then, cut a thin layer of stock, which is left on the stock to protect the cut from drying out until a scion is prepared. A fully prepared scion, also with a cut edge, is applied to a section of the stock (removing a thin film of the second section before it) so that their centers coincide. At the top of the scion, put cotton wool and tie the scion to the rootstock crosswise under the pot with an elastic band (Fig. 2).
A very long time ago, they have been vaccinated with arthropod cactus (epiphyllum) on Peirescia (Fig. 3). The dressing is made with woolen threads. Success in vaccinations requires quick work, clean hands, a knife. Slices should be smooth.
The room temperature should be 20-25 °. It is better to put vaccinations under banks in an illuminated place. Spraying with water at first is not allowed. After 7-8 days, the dressing can be carefully removed.
- Floriculture - D.F. Yukhimchuk.